Download9 Other Human Uses and Impacts

What are the problems?

Shipping exerts a number of pressures

The main pressures associated with maritime shipping in the OSPAR area include the following:

  • Pollution by oil and hazardous or toxic substances from incidental, operational and illegal discharges.
  • Air pollution through emissions and particulate matter from engine exhaust gases and cargo tanks, which may be carried over long distances.
  • Discharge and disposal of wastes from ships including sewage and litter.
  • Release of toxic chemicals used in anti-fouling paints and anodes.
  • Introduction of non-indigenous organisms through ships’ ballast water and associated sediments, and fouling on ships’ hulls.
  • Pollution and physical impact through loss of ships and cargo.
  • Physical and other impacts including noise and collision with marine mammals.